Researchers develop promising reconstruction method based on 3Dprinted esophageal grafts

first_img Source:Mary Ann Liebert, IncJournal reference:Kim, W. et al. (2019) Tissue-Engineered Esophagus via Bioreactor Cultivation for Circumferential Esophageal Reconstruction. Tissue Engineering. doi.org/10.1089/ten.tea.2018.0277 Dr. Chung and colleagues from Korea present an exciting approach for esophageal repair using a combined 3D printing and bioreactor cultivation strategy. Critically, their work shows integration of the engineered esophageal tissue with host tissue, indicating a clinically viable strategy for circumferential esophageal reconstruction.”John P. Fisher, PhD, Tissue Engineering Co-Editor-in-Chief, Fischell Family Distinguished Professor and Department Chair, and Director of the NIH Center for Engineering Complex Tissues at the University of Maryland Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jun 18 2019The loss of complete segments of the esophagus often results from treatments for esophageal cancer or congenital abnormalities, and current methods to re-establish continuity are inadequate. Now, working with a rat model, researchers have developed a promising reconstruction method based on the use of 3D-printed esophageal grafts. Their work is published in Tissue Engineering, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers.Eun-Jae Chung, MD, PhD, Seoul National University Hospital, Korea, Jung-Woog Shin, PhD, Inje University, Korea, and colleagues present their research in an article titled “Tissue-Engineered Esophagus via Bioreactor Cultivation for Circumferential Esophageal Reconstruction”. The authors created a two-layered tubular scaffold with an electrospun nanofiber inner layer and 3D-printed strands in the outer layer. After seeding human mesenchymal stem cells on the inner layer, constructs were cultured in a bioreactor, and a new surgical technique was used for implantation, including the placement of a thyroid gland flap over the scaffold. Efficacy was compared with omentum-cultured scaffolding technology, and successful implantation and esophageal reconstruction were achieved based on several metrics.last_img read more

Researchers develop new technique to accurately detect ASD in children

first_imgMany people are suffering from autism, and we need early diagnosis especially in children. The current approaches to determining if someone has autism are not really child-friendly. Our method allows for the diagnosis to be made more easily and with less possibility of mistakes.The new technique can be used in all ASD diagnosis, but we believe it’s particularly effective for children.”Mehrshad Sadria, a master’s student in Waterloo’s Department of Applied Mathematics Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Jul 9 2019Researchers have developed a new technique to help doctors more quickly and accurately detect autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children.In a study led by the University of Waterloo, researchers characterized how children with ASD scan a person’s face differently than a neuro-typical child. Based on the findings, the researchers were able to develop a technique that considers how a child with ASD gaze transitions from one part of a person’s face to another.According to the developers, the use of this technology makes the diagnostic process less stressful for the children and if combined with existing manual methods could help doctors better avoid a false positive autism diagnosis. In developing the new technique, the researchers evaluated 17 children with ASD and 23 neuro-typical children. The mean chronological ages of the ASD and neuro-typical groups were 5.5 and 4.8, respectively.Each participant was shown 44 photographs of faces on a 19-inch screen, integrated into an eye-tracking system. The infrared device interpreted and identified the locations on the stimuli at which each child was looking via emission and reflection of wave from the iris.The images were separated into seven key areas of interest (AOIs) in which participants focussed their gaze: under the right eye, right eye, under the left eye, left eye, nose, mouth and other parts of the screen. The researchers wanted to know more than how much time the participants spent looking at each AOI, but also how they moved their eyes and scan the faces. To get that information, the researchers used four different concepts from network analysis to evaluate the varying degree of importance the children placed on the seven AOIs when exploring the facial features.Related StoriesResearch reveals genetic cause of deadly digestive disease in childrenResearchers identify gene mutations linked to leukemia in children with Down’s syndromeNew network for children and youth with special health care needs seeks to improve systems of careThe first concept determined the number of other AOIs that the participant directly moves their eyes to and from a particular AOI. The second concept looked at how often a particular AOI is involved when the participant moves their eyes between two other AOIs as quickly as possible. The third concept is related to how quickly one can move their eyes from a particular AOI to other AOIs. The fourth concept measured the importance of an AOI, in the context of eye movement and face scanning, by the number of important AOIs that it shares direct transitions with.Currently, the two most favoured ways of assessing ASD involve a questionnaire or an evaluation from a psychologist.”It is much easier for children to just look at something, like the animated face of a dog, than to fill out a questionnaire or be evaluated by a psychologist,” said Anita Layton, who supervises Sadria and is a professor of Applied Mathematics, Pharmacy and Biology at Waterloo. “Also, the challenge many psychologists face is that sometimes behaviours deteriorate over time, so the child might not display signs of autism, but then a few years later, something starts showing up.”Our technique is not just about behavior or whether a child is focussing on the mouth or eyes. It’s about how a child looks at everything.” Source:University of Waterloolast_img read more

Dolphin algorithm could lead to better medical ultrasounds

first_img Citation: Dolphin algorithm could lead to better medical ultrasounds (2018, June 1) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-06-dolphin-algorithm-medical-ultrasounds.html This new knowledge brings us one step closer to solving the puzzle. A few years ago, Josefin Starkhammar, a researcher in biomedical engineering at Lund University, discovered that the ultrasounds that dolphins emit for echolocation do not consist of one signal, but rather of two intertwined beam components.Her most recent calculations now show that the two signals are not emitted at exactly the same time, although they follow one another very closely. Likewise, she has discovered that the sound frequency is higher further up in the beam, producing a lighter echo within that area.”High and low frequencies are useful for different things. Sounds with low frequencies spread further under water, whereas sounds with high frequencies can provide more detailed information on the shape of the object,” explains Starkhammar.Starkhammar suggests there could be multiple benefits for the dolphin: The time-separated signal components may enable the animal to quickly gauge the speed of approaching or fleeing prey, as the variations in frequency provide more precise information on the position of an object. However, the researchers do not yet know whether this is, in fact, the case.Josefin Starkhammar worked with Maria Sandsten and Isabella Reinhold, professor and doctoral student respectively, in mathematical statistics. Together, they developed a mathematical algorithm, which was used to successfully disentangle and read the overlapping signals.”It works almost like a magic formula! Suddenly we can see things that remained hidden with traditional methods,” says Josefin Starkhammar.Not only does the algorithm increase our understanding of dolphin communication, it could also pave the way for sharper image quality on ultrasound technology built by humans, such as medical ultrasound. It could potentially be used to measure the thickness of organ membranes deeper inside the body, for which current methods are insufficient.Another possible area of improvement is sonars and echosounders, i.e. the equipment used for orientation at sea to read the undersea environment and track shoals of fish.”Here we could copy the principle of using sound beams whose frequency content changes over the cross-section. As a first step, we will rebuild our own equipment which is based on the pulse-echo principle,” says Josefin Starkhammar.Together with researchers in engineering geology, Josefin Starkhammar also has plans to trial the technology as a replacement for destructive testing of roads, for example by rapidly obtaining an image of what a newly-built road looks like under the surface without needing to drill for samples.Even the dolphins themselves are helped by humans better understanding their echolocation capabilities.”With greater understanding, we can protect them from human activity which could damage, disrupt or disable this ability, such as noise from shipping, pile driving in the water, underwater blasting, powerful boat sonars and searching for oil under the sea bed using acoustic methods,” says Josefin Starkhammar.The researchers don’t yet know how the dolphin actually sends out its two almost simultaneous beam components.”In fact, it is quite strange that the dolphin emits two different beam components, as they come from the same organ. We would very much like to find out how this particular event comes about,” she concludes.In order to gather data, Josefin Starkhammar built a measuring instrument with 47 hydrophones (microphones for underwater use) which capture sounds in water in many different frequencies over a whole surface, for example over the whole cross-section of dolphin sonar beams. The dolphin sounds were recorded in Kolmården Wildlife Park in Sweden and in wildlife parks in the Bahamas, Honduras and California. Explore further Dolphins use double sonar More information: Isabella Reinhold et al. Objective detection and time-frequency localization of components within transient signals, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (2018). DOI: 10.1121/1.5032215 Journal information: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Millions of years of evolutionary fine-tuning have made dolphins phenomenally good at using echolocation to orient themselves, find food and communicate with one another. But how do they actually do it? New research from Lund University in Sweden shows that they emit two intertwined ultrasound beam components at different frequencies—and with slightly different timing. Provided by Lund University This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Congress trashes CAG report on Rafale

first_img SHARE SHARE EMAIL Rafale RELATED SHARE What does the CAG’s Rafale report say? ‘Not worth paper it’s printed on’ February 13, 2019 Published oncenter_img NDA Rafale deal cheaper than UPA offer: CAG Congress President Rahul Gandhi along with Sonia Gandhi, Former Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh with party MP’s protesting at Parliament against Rafale deal controversy, in New Delhi on Wednesday.   –  Sandeep Saxena Rahul Gandhi Congress President Rahul Gandhi on Wednesday said the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) report on the Rafale jet fighter deal is “not worth the paper it is printed on” as it does not include the dissent note by the expert negotiating team.At a press conference called within hours after the federal auditor tabled the performance audit report on capital acquisition of the Indian Air Force in the Rajya Sabha, the Opposition Leader said while he does not agree with the findings of the report, its conclusion that the 36 Rafale jet deal by the BJP-led NDA government through an inter-governmental agreement (IGA) is 2.86 per cent cheaper than an earlier deal for 126 jets, “proves that the Prime Minister, the Defence Minister and the Finance Minister lied to Parliament when they said the price difference was between 9-20 per cent”.Fresh revelations Quoting fresh revelations in The Hindu on Wednesday, based on the notings by three domain experts who were part of the Indian Negotiating Team (INT), which pointed out that the new deal worked out by the BJP through the IGA was “not on better terms” than the deal being negotiated by the previous UPA government, Gandhi said the Centre’s twin rationale for negotiating a fresh deal has been “totally demolished”.Refuting rationale“They said that the new deal was worked out because it would be cheaper and bring the aircraft earlier. The note by the technical and financial experts in the negotiating team has totally demolished these two reasons. The only reason for the new deal is to give ₹30,000 crore to Anil Ambani,” the Congress chief alleged.Gandhi questioned why the note by three domain experts was not factored in by the CAG in India in its audit report.To another question on the CAG report, he said, “In my opinion, any audit of a deal that does not take into account the considered opinion of the technical and financial experts on the deal is not worth the paper it is written on.”Gandhi asserted that the fresh revelations in The Hindu have validated the accusation that there is a scam in the Rafale jet deal. “When the domain experts are putting their objections in writing, they are distancing themselves from the corruption in the deal. They will not be held liable if there is an enquiry into the deal,” said Gandhi.On SC orderTo a question about the government’s assertion that the Congress’s accusations about a scam in the Rafale deal have been refuted by the Supreme Court (SC) earlier, and by the CAG now, Gandhi said, “I want to ask — was this note by the domain experts presented to the SC? The facts were hidden.”The Congress President reiterated the demand for a Joint Parliamentary Committee enquiry into the deal. COMMENT COMMENTSlast_img read more

New AP CM reviews reverses and renames schemes launched by TDP govt

first_imgCOMMENTS SHARE Published on June 04, 2019 Projects in Amaravati to be halted, may take recourse to reverse tendering to bring down costs The new Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh and YSR Congress leader, Y.S Jaganmohan Reddy, has during the past five days, been busy reviewing, reversing and renaming many of the schemes and projects launched by the previous Telugu Desam Government led by N. Chandrababu Naidu.Ever since he assumed charge in Vijayawada as the new Chief Minister last Thursday, he has been busy holding these review meetings with officials.Projects haltedHe has given officials instructions to halt projects in different stages in Amaravati, the new capital, and elsewhere in the state. Only after a thorough review and scrutiny of all the projects, would a decision be taken on them. He has alleged in the past large-scale corruption in many of these projects, including the mega Polavaram irrigation project on the Godavari. After a thorough review, he wants to take recourse to a process of reverse tendering to bring down the costs of these projects and also to expose the alleged corruption by the TDP.After assuming charge as the new CM, at the time of the swearing-in, he had hiked the old age pension to Rs 2,250 per month from Rs 2,000, and announced that it would gradually be hiked to Rs 3,000 a month over the next few years. The scheme was named after his late father and former chief minister, Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy.Anna canteens now Rajanna canteensAnna canteens were launched in the state by the TDP Government a few months before the Assembly and General Elections, to provide meals to people at Rs 5, in fulfilment of a promise made by the party in the 2014 election manifesto. These canteens were called Anna canteens after the late N.T Rama Rao, the former chief minister and founder of the Telugu Desam Party. Henceforth, they will be known as Rajanna canteens, after the late Y.S Rajasekhara Reddy.YSR Arogya SriA medical insurance scheme launched by the late Dr. Y.S Rajasekhara Reddy to provide treatment for the poor in corporate hospitals was named NTR Vaidya Seva by the previous TDP government. The new Government has taken a decision to reverse the decision and name the scheme after the late Dr. Y.S Rajasekhara Reddy. The new CM has also given instructions to officials to plug loopholes in the scheme and make it more effective and useful to the public.The salaries of Aasha workers in the state have been hiked from the present Rs 3,000 a month to Rs 10,000 in fulfilment of a promise made by the YSR Congress in its election manifesto.Belt shops The new CM has also left instructions with the state excise officials to take immediate steps for the phase-wise imposition of prohibition in the state. In the first phase, an awareness campaign should be taken up to educate the public and also to remove belt shops in the state immediately. (The unauthorised liquor outlets attached to an authorised, licensed liquor shop are known as belt shops in Andhra Pradesh.)The new CM has also left instructions with irrigation officials to complete the Polavaram project within two years, and also to initiate steps to recover from the Centre Rs 4,000-4,5000 crores already spent by the previous TDP Government on the project from state coffers. The project is a national project, the cost of which should be borne entirely by the Centre, barring the power component.It is said that the new CM will announce the new Cabinet on June 8. On Tuesday he visited his Guru, Sri Sri Sri Swaroopanandendra Saraswathi of Sarada Peetham at Chinamushidiwada in Visakhapatnam district, and sought his blessings. Special pujas were performed to the presiding deity, Raja Syamala Devi, on the occasion of his visit to the ashram and the Swamiji blessed the new CM.The new CM also reversed a decision taken by the previous Chandrababu Naidu government withdrawing the general consent by the state government for the CBI to conduct investigations and raids in the state. The Chandrababu government took the decision in 2018, alleging that the Modi government was using the CBI to wreak political vendetta on its opponents.The new Government has issued orders restoring the general consent, allowing the CBI to conduct investigations and raids in the state without the prior permission of the state government.It is generally perceived and believed that the new Government has taken the step to facilitate a CBI probe into the alleged misdeeds of the previous TDP government. Andhra Pradesh SHARE SHARE EMAIL 0 COMMENTlast_img read more