Previous Article Next Article MerrillLynch Investment Managers is set to introduce flexible working to cut its staffturnover to below 10 per cent. Headof HR, Karen Hoggard, told delegates at a conference in London last week thatit can take up to 12 months to replace a senior employee and cost up to£200,000. Tocombat these costs the investment managers are about to start a pilot forflexible working in the UK. It has proved successful in the company’sAmerica arm.Commentingon the US pilot scheme Hoggard said, “Staff retention has gone up and revenuehas not gone down.” Theflexible approach will include home working, compressed hours and job-sharing.Hoggardsaid, “There is no reason why an employee cannot work three days at the officeand two days at home, communicating with the office via email.”Sheadded, “With the current transport difficulties, this demand is only likely toincrease.” Theaim is to reduce the company’s staff turnover rate from 11 per cent to 8 percent. Hoggard added, “I would not want it reduced any lower than that as allcompanies need an influx of bright new employees with new ideas.”Hoggardalso told delegates at the Annual City Recruitment Conference at the BalticExchange that the bank’s training for line managers also needs improving. Shesaid, “The principal reason why people leave a company is because of theirimmediate manager. Great managers are the constant factor in all greatcompanies. A great manager is someone who says: ‘I’ll help you be moresuccessful than me.’”ByPaul Nelson Related posts:No related photos. Comments are closed. Bank to introduce flexible working to cut staff lossesOn 27 Feb 2001 in Personnel Today
Related posts:No related photos. Can HR be delivered across Europe from a single site?On 26 Jun 2001 in Personnel Today Previous Article Next Article Notel Networks is to serve the HR needs of its 20,000 staff in Europe from acall centre in north London. Mike Broadanalyses the challenges of delivering HR to 20 countries from one siteTelecoms giant Nortel Networks has taken the next step in HR outsourcing andthe HRworld is watching carefully. Earlier this month, it launched anoutsourcing deal with PricewaterhouseCoopers which will provide HR services to20,000 Euro- pean staff (News, 12 June). PwC has opened an HR service centre in Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, to servethe telecoms employees in 22 countries from a single point of delivery. It isthe first outsourced contract to deliver to such a wide audience. David Koch, director of business process outsourcing at PwC, said,”Employers all ask the question, ‘How can I deliver services from a singlecall centre?’ It is the European dilemma. With this deal, we are showing thatit can be done.” Nortel wanted to outsource its HR administration to cut costs and increasethe strategic role of its senior HR staff. Ray Patterson, director of corporate services, relationships and performancemanagement at Nortel Networks, said that the company wanted to”unleash” HR’s business contribution. He said, “The cost element was important, but it’s also been importantto take management focus away from the supporting infrastructure. “We wanted to focus on core competencies and when you have a largecorporation you develop large back office entities. We took a strategicdecision to move out of manufacturing on most product lines, for instance. “It then seemed right to look at back-office functions and bring themto a higher level of consistency we couldn’t do ourselves.” With PwC offering savings of 15 to 30 per cent, the European HR deal wasfinalised in April and went live this month. It is a significant part of a five year, $600m (£429m) global contractbetween Nortel and PwC, signed last May, to provide supply management,procurement, financial, learning and resourcing services. The first challenge for PwC was to standardise HR processes across Europe.It re-engineered 52 HR processes and cut them to 31 core functions. Only 15 percent of these now have a country-specific element, which paved the way for thetransfer of their provision to single point of delivery in the UK. As part of the changes, Nortel Networks transferred100 HR staff to PwC’sservice centre in Potters Bar last month. But Koch stressed that the logistics of the transfer were not the biggestchallenge. He said, “Legally, you’ve got to deal with data protection,Tupe and those issues, but the biggest challenge is the cultural one. Can theyreally deliver this service? Do I really want to let the service gooutside?” PwC had to put time and effort into building relationships with the HRmanagers in each country, to convince them that the service could be deliveredremotely. It has also had to redefine the transferred staff’s approach to business. Asemployees of PwC, they will provide HR services to Nortel – the client – andother potential clients. Steve Bayliffe, European director of employee services at PwC, who heads upthe HR service centre, said, “The transferred HR staff have moved from theback room to becoming revenue earners, with greatly increased customer contactand awareness. “We’ll make our money by letting people go and make efficiencies andthen selling our excess capacity to other clients. The challenge at the momentis the sales pipeline.” He has provided staff with extensive customer-awareness training, and fourex-Nortel staff now provide HR services for 2,500 employees of Equifax, anotherPwC client. To encourage the retention of HR staff, the service centre was locatedwithin 10 miles of the former base of Nortel’s UK HR team, in New Southgate,North London. There has only been a 10 per cent fallout in HR staff so far. European HR staff transferring to the UK received additional training.Bayliffe said, “We make sure they get a thorough understanding of thebusiness. The Europeans spent several weeks in a Nortel facility in their homecountry before they came back to the UK as part of the programme. “The programme is aimed at employees understanding the process,customer priorities and culture of Nortel.” Bayliffe is in the process of recruiting 23 multilingual HR administrationspecialists by the end of the year to handle HR enquiries from all aroundEurope. It has provided a number of graduates with their first opportunity to workin HR. Bayliffe said, “We thought we would get people with customerservice and language skills, and then we would have to train them up in HR. “What we’ve found is graduates in an HR-related discipline, who werefinding it difficult to get jobs in the profession. They didn’t have enoughexperience in the UK to get a job. We can provide them with that first stepup.” European staff can access the HR service centre by e-mail or phone. Thelinguists are the first line of service. If it is a non-complex HR problem,such as a change in personal details, they will deal with the call, but theyhave expert HR support if the request is more complicated. PwC has increased its management team at the service centre to five, with therecent addition of Nigel Connolly, the former HR director of Easyjet. Wendell Sherrell, vice-president of HR services Europe, stresses that the200 HR staff in Europe will be retained for more complex HR support services,such as succession planning and recruitment, in their countries. There are also21 strategic HR business partners to advise senior managers within Nortel. As the relationship beds down, PwC intends to increase the service levels itis providing to Nortel and widen its customer base. Bayliffe said, “In three or four years’ time, we’ll have a set ofprocesses that are off-the-shelf, easily accessible and understood and goodservice levels.” For Nortel Networks, the benefits in a difficult telecoms market are arenewed focus on its core business. Patterson said, “When we need toinduce a change, we can ask PwC to do it and it has to go through the pain. Weare now much more focused on outcomes than we were.” Comments are closed.
Employers need to focus on work-based training because it will contributemore to company profitability in the future, warned the Industrial Society’shead of policy research last week. “Organisations need to spend less on athletes and actors giving frothymotivational seminars to managers, and more on real learning,” said AndyWestwood. Speaking at a CIPD seminar in London, Westwood told delegates thattechnology will have to be harnessed appropriately. “This shouldefficiently spread learning throughout organisations and not just be a new wayof spending more on people at the top,” he said. The seminar brought together six leading commentators from the training anddevelopment field to discuss the future of learning for work. Among them, Ewart Keep, deputy director of the Economic and Social ResearchCouncil Centre on Skills, Knowledge and Organisational Performance, gave afuturistic view of what the skills system would be like in 2015. And Martyn Sloman, CIPD adviser on training and development, spoke of thenew demands placed on training by the advent of e-learning. The CIPD used the event to launch its book The Future of Learning for Work. www.cipd.co.uk/publications Previous Article Next Article ‘Real’ learning holds key to future successOn 24 Jul 2001 in Personnel Today Related posts:No related photos. Comments are closed.
Dr Lynn McAtamneyWith a sustained increase in both the work demands experienced by individuals and the speed of access to information available to them, the flexibility of using portable office equipment is understandably attractive.A laptop, mobile telephone and modem permit a certain amount of control over work schedules and work locations that cannot be achieved in a conventional office. This may be required by the employer or used by individuals who find it more convenient, or necessary, to work away from their office. Additionally it gives people the choice of working outside traditional office hours.When buying a portable computer there is little guidance on how to position it for best posture or whether the keyboard is a comfortable size for the user’s fingers. But there is plenty of information on the computer’s capacity, speed and screen size. The freedom offered by the portable office more often focuses on getting the work done than on ergonomic issues. As such, in practice, the responsibilities of both the employer and employee can be disregarded in the face of work demands. This is reflected in the numbers of complaints of musculoskeletal problems in people who work away from a conventional office.Vickery1 surveyed the musculoskeletal problems of a group of 508 respondents from a random sample of 626 staff who undertook office-based, manufacturing and home-based occupations. Of these 40 per cent used laptops. Eighty-three per cent of the sales force, who used laptops, reported one or more musculoskeletal disorder and 14 per cent of those who used a laptop for more than one hour a day reported significantly higher levels of elbow pain (p<0.05). Additionally, 72 per cent of employees who used the laptop for four hours or more a day reported a significant increase in back pain (p<0.05) compared to those who used it less often. There was a higher level of reported low back pain in the laptop users (59 per cent) compared to the rest of the sample (49 per cent) that included industrial staff who undertook manual handling operations.It can be argued that this was just one sample and there can be many reasons for reporting musculoskeletal problems. However, the responses reflect an “at risk” group and management may well be storing up problems, should they take the attitude of “out of sight, out of mind”.The TUC suggests that for every person who wins compensation for repetitive strain injury there are another 50 who have not taken action. Out-of-court settlements for employees have risen recently with Inland Revenue typists Kathleen Tovey and Kathleen Harris being awarded £82,000 and £79,000 respectively.The seductive convenience of an office away from the office allows individuals to bypass the principles of ergonomics, through either a lack of awareness or a lack of policy and agreement on working practices and working environment set-up.ErgonomicsThe principles of ergonomics have been used to underpin the Manual Handling Regulations, 1992 and the Display Screen Equipment Regulations, 1992. However, these are not up to date with current laptop use and currently specify that laptops are exempt unless they are used for extended periods of time. Given the fact that use is increasing rather than decreasing it is wise to include all staff issued with laptops in the requirements of the regulations to protect the employee and the company.The employer’s duty of care of course extends beyond just these regulations, but equally the employee needs to incorporate self-care into their work away from the office environment. Anyone who sits slouched, works at a laptop for more than an hour, uses a laptop at the dining table or sunk into the settee should have the basic common sense to realise that, in most cases, this is not particularly healthy for their body. Yet, it is easier to override pain in the shoulders, arms or back than to stop a job and complete it later.Case studyThe box below provides straightforward information on what employers should do but things can go wrong even in the most responsible companies.A 24-year-old woman was employed in a newly created sales promotion posting in one such company. The work required considerable travel and she was a motivated home-based employee who spent long hours working. She was provided with a laptop, a mobile phone and a phone line into her home. She travelled extensively by both car and train in the course of her work. Her work included report writing, statistics preparation and answering over 70 e-mails a day. She used her laptop on the dining table at home and also worked on the laptop on the train. After three months she noticed pain in her right palm and hand and by five months the symptoms had been diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome.Her manager was supportive but probably lacked knowledge. He provided her with a backpack that helped when travelling. The occupational health department was pro-active and used specialist services to fast track her diagnosis and treatment.On ergonomic assessment it was apparent that her neck, shoulder, back and hand postures were contributing to loading on the musculoskeletal system. Each was simple to solve and it was unfortunate that a competent person within the company had not undertaken identification, assessment and modification before the condition had progressed.The employee’s chair was substituted with one providing the correct adjustment for her stature and the mouse was programmed for left-hand use as this was her preferred hand. Alternative mouse designs were tested for comfort and voice-activated software was introduced for reports.Staff were asked to telephone rather than e-mail her and a headset was provided to allow correct neck alignment while working on the telephone. She was given a work and rest schedule which she maintained herself.This company was probably heading for an expensive claim and the employee to a less bright future. So, what should the company have done?This organisation had excellent resources available and the solution to this, and similar situations, is a three-pronged approach.l Provide policy and associated education specific to those who work away from the officel Establish ergonomic assessments of the “workstation” and ensure that complies with DSE Regulationsl Provide appropriate equipment for the office away from the officeOf course policy needs to be disseminated to all those to whom it applies in a format that makes it interesting to read. Listed below are some of the issues that should be addressed:l Policy and agreement on best working practices that is issued at the start of employment or at a set date for existing staffl Health and safety in the home (to protect family members and company equipment)l A specified work schedule with rest breaks (with clear instruction to communicate if they are being violated due to work pressures)l Specification of how work is assigned with realistic return timesl Education and assessment for sticking to regulations with guidelines and diagramsl Provision of equipment with advice on how best to use itl Provision of furniture with advice on how best to set it upl Sickness reporting. Communication with line manager and other support, e.g. the occupational health departmentl Security and insurance of person and propertyRisk assessmentEstablishing an ergonomic risk assessment process that includes a DSE assessment is a more practical approach to meet all the various risks and working environments in which non-office based staff might work. As a quick guide to postural risk the RULA assessment2 can be used (this can be downloaded free on www.cope-ergo.com).The risk assessment needs to touch on all the tasks undertaken, such as when working on the laptop or desktopcomputer at home and elsewhere as required, driving posture and manual handling of items from the vehicleor in the home.The key to looking at working posture at a laptop or desktop computer is to check for the following:l The shoulders should be relaxed and comfortable. Both poor neck posture and incorrect keyboard/mouse height or position will contribute to poor posture.l The neck should not be bent down to see the screen. This can cause neck discomfort and contribute to arm pain. Portable DSE sloping raisers are useful and if the laptop is used at home a keyboard and mouse can be plugged in to allow flexibility of neck and hand positionsl The elbows should be relaxed by the side, particularly on the side using the mouse.l The back should be supported in the lumbar region around belt height and the shoulders should not be further forward than the hipsl The knees should be level with or slightly lower than the hips, and the feet should be well supportedl The keyboard and screen should be positioned in front of the user so the body is not twistedSimilar guidelines can be set up for the driving position, with the length of driving time controlled and best practice used in manual handling items from the vehicle.One of the hardest concepts to educate users about is the demand made by static loading, that is to say when postures are maintained for extended periods, especially if they are not well supported.“Change your posture frequently” is the equivalent saying “eat your greens”. It is only when individuals have pain that they appreciate the wisdom of this simple advice. Our bodies were not designed to be in front of a monitor for the major proportion of our working day. A person working away from the office environment does not have the same opportunities for socialising and discussions with colleagues that stop a user from staying focused on the screen for long periods. It is therefore important to put these pauses into their working time in a different way.Some people need to be given a structure to stick to for their working schedule while others are able to incorporate short breaks into their work patterns without any problem. It requires good communication, education and management to establish this important balance that enables people to achieve their work targets without pushing themselves beyond their limits, leading to musculoskeletal problems.For issues that are flagged up by employees as potential problems, there should be clear guidelines on where they can get information or support. As well as the manager, the occupational health department can play a leading role in providing practical support.If the assessment identifies the need for equipment such as a monitor stand or peripherals, it is easier for both the employee and manager if an agreed list of products and suppliers has already been established with the purchasing department. In this way the ergonomic features of any piece of equipment will have been checked and the process for purchasing will be simpler.In summary, the issues regarding musculoskeletal risks in the office away from the office are already known and solutions are available. A policy, a self-assessment programme for risks, practical education and proactive management of these employees with support from the occupational health team is necessary to enable them to achieve their career aims without long-term consequences to their musculoskeletal health.References1. Vickery J (2000) An epidemiological survey of musculoskeletal disorders, and their clinical management in a large company in the U.K. MSc Thesis, Robens Centre for Health Ergonomics, University of Surrey.2. McAtamney L, Corlett EN (1993) RULA. A survey method for investigation of work-related upper limb disorders. Applied Ergonomics. 24(2): 91-99. Portable problemsOn 1 Nov 2001 in Musculoskeletal disorders, Personnel Today Previous Article Next Article Comments are closed. Related posts:No related photos.
Previous Article Next Article This week’s training newsPartners’ T&D strategy Northumberland County Council and Northumbria University have launched astrategic learning partnership to help strengthen local economic growth. Itwill give all management staff the opportunity to collaborate closely intraining, research and other topics. www.unn.ac.uk www.northumberland.gov.ukSharing secrets A new online service will allow staff at the Ericsson University to shareknowledge with colleagues across the world. The system, introduced by theEdvantage group, will allow 30 candidates on the Ericsson leadership scheme tojoin an online community spanning 18 countries, during and after participatingin the development modules. The community contains discussion groups, learningmodules, chatrooms, news and speaker profiles. www.ericsson.comCoaching continues Eight out of 10 businesses in the UK are still investing in training,despite the economic downturn. A CMG survey of 150 UK companies has revealedthat staff receive an average of six to 10 days’ training a year.Electronic-based systems are becoming more popular due to cost efficiency and40 per cent of respondents use e-learning. IT teams get the largest amount ofcoaching. www.cmg.co.uk TrainingOn 20 Nov 2001 in Personnel Today Comments are closed. Related posts:No related photos.
Finance courses take to cyberspaceOn 1 May 2002 in Personnel Today The City-based training organisation, the Center for Interactive FinancialTraining (CIFT), is making its training programmes available online toindividuals and corporate clients from its website. CIFT provides face-to-face financial training programmes to organisationssuch as Merrill Lynch, Morgan Stanley and ABN Amro, and has accumulated morethan 250 hours of online training covering the full range of financial topicsfrom fund management and capital valuation to risk management, regulation andcompliance (including money laundering) and finance for non-finance managers.The training can be taken solely online or as part of a blended programme. Anonline pre-course can be followed by a face-to-face meeting with the trainerbefore the remainder of the training is carried out online. Online discussionforums and chat rooms allow learners to discuss related issues with otherlearners. Course modules cost from £39 to £89 and full details are available on thewebsite. www.ciftweb.com Comments are closed. Previous Article Next Article Related posts:No related photos.
Key to productivity lies in keeping job satisfaction highOn 28 May 2002 in Personnel Today Related posts:No related photos. Previous Article Next Article As yet another economic study shows the UK continuing to lag seriouslybehind our major international competitors in the productivity stakes – thistime from the National Institute of Economic and Social Research – the need fora fundamental rethink as to how we organise and motivate people at work hasbecome an imperative. The odd enterprise or skills initiative here, or work-life balance programmethere is simply not going to address the scale of the problem. The HR functionhas a critical role to play in compelling colleagues to undertake and act onthis wholesale reappraisal. By the end of the century, the ‘religion’ of North American strategic HRMhad become all-pervasive. Strategic alignment, bottom- line contribution,boardroom presence and HR scorecards have become our new commandments. But where are we today? The CIPD has led the research agenda in the UK sincethe mid-1990s in demonstrating the business impact of HR practices. This workhas been synthesised in Performance through People, by Observer journalistSimon Caulkin, available on our website. The next instalment in the series, thefull results of a major piece of case-based research at Bath University intothe ‘hows’ of this relationship, will be published later this year. A less well-publicised but equally significant stream of CIPD research haslooked at British employee attitudes for the last six years. This annual studyexplores the state and importance of the ‘psychological contract’, taking intoaccount the views of over 2,000 employees across all sectors. When it comes to people: we are changeable, fickle and contrary in our viewsand opinions, as difficult to research as to manage. It is true the CIPDfindings are not quite as bad as some other recent attitude studies, althoughthey are consistent with, and have incorporated that contained in the WorkplaceEmployee Relations Study database. But this material should still make pretty sobering and essential readingfor any plc boardroom or Permanent Secretary. Overall levels of job satisfaction are generally positive and improving,helped by HR-inspired changes such as increases in formal communicationmechanisms and family-friendly practices. There is a great acceptance of theneed for change in pursuit of improved productivity. However, our researchshows that where change levels are highest, in practice dissatisfaction isstrongest. Only a third of us feel sufficiently involved and consulted over changesthat affect us in our work, while a minority think we share in the resulting benefitsto the employer. Only 24 per cent of staff, and just 12 per cent in centralgovernment, trust their senior management. Perhaps most damning of all, whenwork is forming such an increasingly significant chunk of our lives, only 26per cent of us are proud to tell other people who we work for. Roger Davis, CEO of Business Banking at Barclays, recently committed toimprove that figure for his own 9,000 staff to more than 75 per cent – and withgood reason. Links between HR policies and business success operate through the medium ofour people. But as the CIPD’s recent Reward Survey of 970 UK organisations concluded,paradoxically, with almost “too much emphasis placed on businessalignmentÉmany HR and reward systems do not succeed in motivating employees”.Professor Manfred Kets de Vries at INSEAD has written about the dangers oforganisational neuroses, of pushing apparently desirable virtues to theextreme, and the human cost of doing so. Now is the time for HR to helporganisations re-establish an appropriate and self-reinforcing balance betweenbusiness goals and results, and employee needs and motivations. This is, after all, hardly a novel realisation, or the latest HR fad. Duringthe last war, the Air Ministry’s Guidance Notes for Personnel Officers,reminded them of their duty, “to secure productive efficiency”, aswell as looking after the service personnel and their families. And almost acentury ago, Edward Cadbury was of the firm opinion that employee welfare andcompany productivity “are different sides of the same coin”. Duncan Brown is head of professional knowledge and information at theCIPD Comments are closed.
Sky invests to impress its staff and customersOn 21 May 2002 in Personnel Today Broadcaster Sky has invested £50 million in refurbishing a call centre inScotland as part of its drive to build its brand with both customers and staff.Group HR director Craig McCoy said the investment was needed to improve thephysical working environment of the 6,000 call centre staff and he said hebelieved this improvement would lead to a better service for Sky customers.”They don’t sit like battery hens anymore. We want people inspired toserve customers,” he said. He told delegates, at Richmond Events’ Human Resources Forum on the Oriana,that the Sky’s vision is to make customers feel that staff will go the extramile. As part of this process all staff go through a three-day trainingprogramme. This is a big investment, McCoy said, but one he believes will payoff. Sky attempts to retain staff – who could easily move to one of the manycompetitor call centres – by making them feel involved in the media giant. “We have developed a theme, and that is being part of the mediabusiness. We don’t pay them more to keep them, we use branding so that theywant to work for a media company.” McCoy said Sky did not measure performance by monitoring the number of callslogged by staff because taking a lot of calls quickly could indicate thatcustomers are not getting proper service. “We want to leave the customerhappy. It’s all about quality,” he said. Sky bought in external consultant Mark Radda, of Wolff Olins, to develop thebrand and help internal communication. “The challenge is to speak with onevoice, as one brand,” McCoy said. The company has initiated a leadership forum to support brand development,at which the chief executive talks through company goals with its 400 managers.The message is expected to cascade to staff through line managers, backed up byCDs, videos and Sky’s internal channel, which staff can access in canteens andmeeting rooms. By Quentin Reade Comments are closed. Related posts:No related photos. Previous Article Next Article
Previous Article Next Article Employers will pay price for ignoring lawOn 1 Sep 2002 in Personnel Today More than 80 per cent of employers have no defence against equal pay claims,according to a survey by DLA MCG Consulting. A study of more than 200 organisations shows 83 per cent are not confidentthey pay women fairly and only a minority have managers trained in equal payissues. The results follow the recent passing of the Employment Act 2002, which willusher in equal pay questionnaires to encourage claims by helping staff tochallenge employers. The Government is also amending the Equal Pay Act 1970 to make it easier tobring multiple claims, and has streamlined the way equal pay claims are dealtwith at employment tribunals. If employees can establish a case, the burden of proof will be on theemployer to disprove discrimination. The survey shows most employers will beunable to do this. “By looking at pay systems and taking action to eliminate paydiscrimination, employers can be more confident about reducing the risk ofequal pay claims,” said chair of the Equal Opportunities Commission JulieMellor. Birmingham City Council is spending an estimated £15m on a job evaluationand regrading of its 35,000 workers. The council’s chief personnel officer Andy Albon, said: “It will makesure we have a more equitable remuneration structure, enabling us to muster adefence against claims.” Related posts:No related photos. Comments are closed.
Comments are closed. The TUC has called for tobacco smoke to be classified as a ‘hazardouschemical’ under European law and restricted in workplaces – including bars andrestaurants – as other dangerous substances are. Its call coincided with National No Smoking Day in March. The union body haswritten to the EU Commissioner for Employment and Social Affairs, asking forlimits to be set on exposure to tobacco smoke at work, and to list it as anoccupational carcinogen. Brendan Barber, TUC general secretary, said: “Making work smoke-freewould save thousands of lives and do absolutely no harm to the economy.” The chief medical officer for Scotland has claimed that 50,000 people wouldgive up smoking if it was banned in the workplace. Dr Mac Armstrong made the comments to the BBC during an interview aboutNational No Smoking Day. The BMA reiterated its calls for smoking to be banned in workplaces as partof the no-smoking day, and the Health Development Agency called for smoking tobe banned in hospitals. Of the UK’s 12 million smokers, more than nine million said they wantedsmoke-free hospitals to help them reduce their own usage. Previous Article Next Article Union calls for tobacco smoke to labelled ‘hazardous’On 1 Apr 2004 in Personnel Today Related posts:No related photos.