This study investigates the significance of trends of four temperature time series—Central England Temperature(CET), Stockholm, Faraday-Vernadsky, and Alert. First the robustness and accuracy of various trend detectionmethods are examined: ordinary least squares, robust and generalized linear model regression, Ensemble EmpiricalMode Decomposition (EEMD), and wavelets. It is found in tests with surrogate data that these trenddetection methods are robust for nonlinear trends, superposed autocorrelated fluctuations, and non-Gaussianfluctuations. An analysis of the four temperature time series reveals evidence of long-range dependence (LRD)and nonlinear warming trends. The significance of these trends is tested against climate noise. Three differentmethods are used to generate climate noise: (i) a short-range-dependent autoregressive process of first order[AR(1)], (ii) an LRD model, and (iii) phase scrambling. It is found that the ability to distinguish the observedwarming trend from stochastic trends depends on the model representing the background climate variability.Strong evidence is found of a significant warming trend at Faraday-Vernadsky that cannot be explained by any ofthe three null models. The authors find moderate evidence of warming trends for the Stockholm and CET timeseries that are significant against AR(1) and phase scrambling but not the LRD model. This suggests that thedegree of significance of climate trends depends on the null model used to represent intrinsic climate variability.This study highlights that in statistical trend tests, more than just one simple null model of intrinsic climate variabilityshould be used. This allows one to better gauge the degree of confidence to have in the significance of trends.
Ray Clark is sworn in to his second term on the Ocean City Board of Education in January 2014.The Ocean City Board of Education on Wednesday approved the hiring of Ryan Clark as assistant boys’ swimming coach for Ocean City High School.State nepotism guidelines prevent school board members from maintaining seats in districts where direct relatives are employees, so the new coach’s older brother, Ray Clark, was forced to resign his position on the Board of Education.The board accepted the elder Clark’s resignation effective May 14.“I would never stand in his way,” Clark said of his younger brother, even though the coaching position is part-time with a stipend of $5,135.“I thoroughly enjoyed it,” Clark said of his tenure on the board.He was first elected in 2010. He said he got started before his two daughters were in school, because he wanted to learn more and to give back to the community.__________Sign up for free Ocean City news updates from OCNJ Daily.__________Clark said the board is a “great group of people” and that he’s continually “astounded by the kids.”“It’s not an act when they’re in school. They’re just truly good kids,” Clark said of the district’s students. “And the community always comes out and supports the school.”He noted that the volunteer school board position is demanding and said, “A new set of eyes and a different perspective is always good.”Clark, an Ocean City firefighter, was re-elected to his second term in November 2013, and his term expires December 31, 2016.The school board will solicit applicants for an appointment to fill Clark’s seat until the end of the year. Candidates will then run in the November 2015 election to fill the final year of Clark’s unexpired term (with candidates running for a full three-year term in November 2016).If the board does not make an appointment within 65 days of Clark’s resignation, the county superintendent could potentially make the decision for Ocean City, according to Solicitor Mike Stanton.Former school board member Greg Donahue resigned in August 2013 when his daughter was under consideration and hired as a school teacher in the district.
September 22, 2015: TuesdayCalls for service: 83Motor Vehicle Stops: 27Motor Vehicle Accidents: 2Property Checks: 21Alarms: 5The Police Department assisted with 6 fire and 4 EMS callsMotor vehicle accident, 9th St. & Wesley Ave., at 1:24pmMotor vehicle accident, 1700 block Simpson Ave., at 6:28pmDWI, 300 block 10th St., one in custody, at 11:01pm September 25, 2015: FridayCalls for service: 66Motor Vehicle Stops: 18Motor Vehicle Accidents: 1Property Checks: 21Alarms: 4The Police Department assisted with 3 fire and 5 EMS callsMotor vehicle accident, Route 52, at 12:29pmTrespassing, 900 block Asbury Ave., at 2:29pm September 20, 2015: Sunday Calls for service: 78Motor Vehicle Stops: 20Motor Vehicle Accidents: 0Property Checks: 18Alarms: 5The Police Department assisted with 6 Fire and 7 EMS callsResisting arrest, 600 block West Ave., one in custody, at 9:27pm September 21, 2015: Monday Calls for service: 69Motor Vehicle Stops: 21Motor Vehicle Accidents: 0Property Checks: 23Alarms: 3The Police Department assisted with 6 Fire and 3 EMS calls September 20 – 26, 2015Calls for Service: 522Daily Average: 75 September 23, 2015: WednesdayCalls for service: 79Motor Vehicle Stops: 29Motor Vehicle Accidents: 1Property Checks: 16Alarms: 4The Police Department assisted with 4 fire and 7 EMS callsWarrant, E. Station Rd., one in custody, at 8:35amMotor vehicle accident, 12th St. & Asbury Ave., at 11:19amWarrant, Seabright Rd., one in custody, at 12:02pmTheft, 1300 block West Ave., at 1:25pmTheft, 200 block Asbury Ave., at 1:00pmFraud, 1300 block West Ave., at 2:26pmTheft, 2600 block West Ave., at 3:09pmCDS, 34th St., one in custody, at 10:45pm September24, 2015: ThursdayCalls for service: 64Motor Vehicle Stops: 13Motor Vehicle Accidents: 4Property Checks: 16Alarms: 3The Police Department assisted with 6 fire and 9 EMS callsWarrant, 1400 block West Ave., one in custody, at 12:22amWarrant, 900 block Central Ave., one in custody, at 2:17amCriminal mischief, 700 block Central Ave., at 8:45amMotor vehicle accident, 9th St. & Central Ave., at 12:17pmMotor vehicle accident, 900 block Wesley Ave., at 12:57pmMotor vehicle accident, 100 block 9th St., at 1:06pmMotor vehicle accident, 10th St. & Bay Ave., at 3:46pm PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS:Just a reminder that it is a violation of a City Ordinance to have dogs on the boardwalk anytime during the year.City Ordinance 87-17sec.4-32 prohibits any Boat/Trailer over 22 feet in overall length from being parked on a city street. Any boat/trailer less than 22 feet in overall length can only remain on a city street for three consecutive days. Officers will be issuing summons and towing boats/trailers for any observed violations. Ocean City Police Department September 26, 2015: Saturday Calls for service: 81Motor Vehicle Stops: 26Motor Vehicle Accidents: 1Property Checks: 10Alarms: 2The Police Department assisted with 10 fire and 14 EMS callsTrespassing, 4300 block West Ave., at 12:50amCriminal mischief, 1400 block Central Ave., at 2:17pmMotor vehicle accident, 900 block Ocean Ave., at 2:40pmTheft, 1300 block Pleasure, at 4:39pmBurglary, 900 block Boardwalk, one in custody, at 10:36pm OCEAN CITY POLICE SUMMARIZED WEEK’S ACTIVITIES
I have just returned from my first official visit to the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPTs) and Israel. I was pleased to meet Palestinians in East Jerusalem, Hebron, and Abu Nuwar Bedouin Community in Area C of the West Bank. I heard from human rights defenders about the impact of Israel’s occupation and saw the assistance that UK aid is providing to some of the most vulnerable in Palestinian society. I had a positive first meeting with Prime Minister Hamdallah to discuss these issues, the situation in Gaza and reaffirm the UK’s commitment to strengthening the UK-Palestinian Authority relationship. In my role as Minister for Human Rights, including the right to freedom of religion or belief, I met with the Palestinian Minister for Religious Affairs Youssef Ideiss, and hosted an interfaith roundtable. In Israel, I was humbled to attend the State Opening Ceremony for Holocaust Martyrs and Heroes Remembrance Day at Yad Vashem. I had constructive meetings with Israeli ministers Tzachi Hanegbi and Ayelet Shaked, re-affirming the UK’s commitment to our bilateral relationship with Israel, and raising our human rights concerns relating to the occupation, including the issue of Palestinian children in Israeli military detention. I also met with Israeli companies working on counter terrorism technologies, to discuss what more we can do together to prevent terrorist use of the internet. I remain deeply concerned about the situation in Gaza, and in particular by the high number of Palestinian deaths in recent weeks. With the Palestinian leadership I reaffirmed the right of the Gazan people, as indeed all peoples, to protest peacefully. It is important to understand the role Hamas continues to play in fomenting the violence. The UK recognises that Israel has the right to protect its borders against Hamas and other terrorist groups but as I said to Israeli Ministers, they must show restraint and consider carefully its use of force in response to future protests. In my engagement with both Israelis and Palestinians I stressed the importance of addressing the underlying causes of the economic and humanitarian situation, and in particular to improve movement and access for people and goods. My visit illustrated the urgent need for progress towards a two-state solution, so that Israelis and Palestinians can finally live with the peace and dignity they deserve. Email [email protected] Media enquiries Follow the Foreign Office on Instagram, YouTube and LinkedIn Follow the Foreign Office on Twitter @foreignoffice and Facebook Follow Foreign Office Minister Lord Ahmad on Twitter @tariqahmadbt For journalists Further information Lord Ahmad, Minister for Human Rights, said:
Native white-clawed crayfish have been in decline since the 1970s, when the invasive American signal crayfish escaped into UK waters. These invasive crayfish carry a plague that kills off the native species, and outcompetes them for food and habitat.The UK is home to a quarter of the world’s white-clawed crayfish and the river Witham and its tributaries are home to tens of thousands, making it one of the largest strongholds in the country.The rescued 58 male and 41 female crayfish, plus juveniles and eggs, have been moved to safe locations in the nearby Cringle Brook and Wyville Brook.Read more about the Environment Agency’s work to protect native crayfish in Lincolnshire. This is a prime example of how we aim to protect wildlife and nature – undertaking this rescue meant we were able to save hundreds of creatures which otherwise could have been killed even as we were working non-stop to control the pollution. The spill is now contained and clean-up is ongoing, but our teams are still closely monitoring conditions and an investigation is underway. Protecting people and the environment is our priority and we take every pollution seriously, so please report any environmental incidents to us on 0800 80 70 60 so we can respond as quickly as possible. More than 500 fish and nearly 200 protected crayfish have been rescued and moved to safety after a pollution in a Lincolnshire river put them at risk.The white-clawed crayfish – a protected native species under threat across the country – were saved by Environment Agency ecologists and transported to safe locations where their populations can re-establish out of harm’s way.Fast-acting fisheries experts also recovered wild brown trout, bullhead, and coarse fish, moving them away from the pollution and downstream to safety while clean-up efforts got underway.The rescue was undertaken after a tractor overturned last week, spilling fertiliser into Gunby Brook, a tributary of the River Witham. Samples showed high levels of ammonia in up to 4km of watercourse – putting the river’s delicate ecology at risk.Environment Agency officers were swift to respond, working with the landowner to contain the pollution behind a series of temporary dams, carrying out sampling and monitoring conditions, and providing specialist advice on clean-up.The affected water is now being treated and some of the temporary dams are being removed, where it is safe to do so, in order to restore the natural flow within the river.An investigation is now underway into the circumstances surrounding the incident, which could lead to further action in the future.Pete Reilly, Area Duty Manager at the Environment Agency, said:
Phish has unveiled their latest archival live release via LivePhish. For this new official release, the band takes fans back to July 19th, 1991 at Somerville, MA’s Somerville Theatre. The performance marked Phish’s sixth stop at the Boston-area venue, where they were joined by The Giant Country Horns and Jon Fishman‘s mother, Mimi Fishman. The latest audio release out of Phish’s extensive vault marks only the second LivePhish release ever featuring The Giant Country Horns, which included Dave Grippo, Russell Remington, and Carl Gerhard.This show featured The Giant Country Horns for all songs excluding “Fee”, “Squirming Coil”, “I Didn’t Know”, “My Sweet One”, and “Runaway Jim”. Phish’s first set featured noteworthy, horn-heavy takes on “Golgi Apparatus”, “David Bowie”, “You Enjoy Myself”, and “Gumbo”, the latter of which featured Jon Fishman on trombone. The band opened up their second set with a rockin’ “Suzy Greenberg”, which was followed up by exploratory renditions of “Tweezer”, “The Mango Song”, and “Big Black Furry Creature From Mars”.Phish’s performance from July 19th, 1991 performance is now available for streaming for LivePhish+ subscribers. Fans can also download the recording here in multiple audio formats.Setlist: Phish | Somerville Theatre | Somerville, MA | 7/19/1991Set One: Golgi Apparatus, The Landlady > Bouncing Around the Room, David Bowie, Fee > Cavern, The Squirming Coil, You Enjoy Myself, Gumbo, Touch MeSet Two: Suzy Greenberg > Divided Sky, I Didn’t Know, My Sweet One, Magilla > Tweezer, The Mango Song, Big Black Furry Creature from MarsEncore: Lawn Boy > Runaway Jim Giant Country Horns. Giant Country Horns; Fish on trombone. Giant Country Horns; Fish on cowbell. Mimi Fishman on vacuum. Giant Country Horns; impromptu rapping. Carl Gerhard on trumpet. Sung as “Runaway Yim.”This show featured the Giant Country Horns for all songs except Fee, Coil, I Didn’t Know, My Sweet One, and Runaway Jim. The Bowie included Bouncing and Jeopardy! theme teases. YEM included Frankenstein teases as well as a Chameleon tease by the Horns. Gumbo featured Fish on trombone and Touch Me featured Fish on cowbell. Gumbo and BBFCFM included Giant Country Horn intros. After Touch Me, Page announced that they would be debuting the Esther animated film at the setbreak. I Didn’t Know featured Mimi Fishman on vacuum. Magilla contained an Up on the House Top tease from Carl Gerhard. Tweezer featured impromptu rapping. BBFCFM included theme from Leave It to Beaver and William Tell Overture teases during the Horn introductions and a quick tease of the I Love Lucy theme. Lawn Boy featured Gerhard, who was introduced as “Lawn Boy,” on trumpet. Runaway Jim was sung as “Runaway Yim.” This show is available as an archival release on LivePhish.com.via phish.netPhoto via LivePhish
Sacvan Bercovitch, his generation’s foremost scholar of Puritan America and of the cultural echoes that puritanism bequeathed to modernity, died Dec. 8. He was 81.At Harvard from 1983 until his retirement in 2000, Bercovitch was the Charles H. Carswell Professor of English and American Literature and Language. During those years, he held a parallel appointment in the Department of Comparative Literature, in part because of his continuing work as a translator and champion of Yiddish literature.Until his death, Bercovitch was the Powell M. Cabot Professor of American Literature, Emeritus, and maintained an office in Widener Library. He was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, was past president of the American Studies Association, and from 1994 to 2005 was general editor of “The Cambridge History of American Literature.”Among his honors was the 2007 Bode-Pearson Prize for outstanding contributions to American studies. At the time, John Stauffer, professor of English and of African and African-American Studies, called Bercovitch “one of the great literary historians of the 20th century.” He was, Stauffer added, “one of the first American scholars to analyze the ideological and rhetorical functions of literature and to link art to political and cultural themes.”A funeral service for Bercovitch was held on Dec. 11 at Levine Chapels in Brookline, Mass. He had lived with his family in nearby Newton.In the new Harvard Department of English newsletter, longtime colleague Werner Sollors called Bercovitch “the leading Americanist for decades,” a transformative scholar who was “internationally known for his learned and provocative books.”They included “The Puritan Origins of the American Self” (1975) and “The American Jeremiad” (1978). While at Harvard, he published “The Office of ‘The Scarlet Letter,’” a densely textured 1991 study of a single novel by Nathaniel Hawthorne, as well as “The Rites of Assent: Transformations in the Symbolic Construction of America,” a 1993 collection of his essays.Said Sollors, “His readers must have guessed that he was, and his colleagues and former students knew him to be, a whimsically self-questioning, disarmingly candid, and charmingly vulnerable man who would surprise you — and then surprise you again.”Before Harvard, Bercovitch taught at Columbia and Brandeis universities and as a young scholar in the 1960s at the University of California, San Diego. During his career, he also lectured at Princeton and Stanford universities and at others around the world. His books were translated into Chinese, Hungarian, German, Italian, and other languages.He was an Americanist, one with “a global audience for the way he defined the field,” said Sollors. But his reach and imagination were never narrow.The first three essays of his career were off the American path — explorations of Fyodor Dostoyevsky, “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight,” and John Milton’s “Paradise Lost.” He later wove other notes into his expanding symphony of scholarship on Puritan America: looks at William Blake, Thomas Mann, William Wordsworth, William Shakespeare, and Thomas Kyd, along with asides in family history, the Holocaust, medical ethics, anthropology, chess, and the challenges of graduate study. (Including Columbia and Harvard, Bercovitch supervised more than 100 Ph.D. dissertations.)Whatever topic Bercovitch took on, he adopted a fearless voice, people who knew him said. One critic wrote that “The Puritan Origins of the American Self,” the book that four decades ago put the young scholar on the literary map, “so suddenly inspired such intense admiration and controversy.”Friends knew him to enjoy tweaking authority and to be skeptical of privilege and power, which may have been a legacy from his Marxist parents. Bercovitch, for instance, took delight that he was a kind of upstart who inherited Room 417 in Widener Library, the former office of patrician Harvard historian Samuel Eliot Morison.“He stylized himself modestly as a Canadian outsider,” said Sollors, “a figure from a Kafka story, or a chess player who has to deal with constantly changing rules.”Bercovitch was born in 1933 in a Jewish ghetto in Montreal. He was the first son and third child of Alexander Bercovitch and Bryna Avrutik, Jews born in the Ukraine who had survived poverty and pogroms and who all their lives hewed to a utopian socialist dream. (His mother had put her beliefs to work, joining the Red Army in 1917. She was wounded in action in 1919.)Bercovitch’s euphonious and novel first name was an amalgam of “Sacco” and “Vanzetti,” two native Italian anarchists in Massachusetts who were executed for murder in 1927, despite a massive campaign by supporters who believed them innocent. For many years, the men were revered as folk heroes of the Left.After a rough childhood that included stints in foster homes, Bercovitch studied briefly at the New School for Social Research in New York and for a year at Reed College in Oregon. Then he gave up higher education to pursue life as a dairy farmer at Kibbutz Nachshon near Israel’s troubled border with Jordan.Bercovitch returned to Montreal with his first wife, and years later recalled, “All I knew how to do was milk cows.” He juggled a daytime job at Steinberg’s, a grocery store that quickly put him on a management track. The store paid for his night school education at what was then Sir George Williams College. It was there, he said, that he discovered the joys of literature.From 1992 to 2008, as a form of repayment to his own academic origins, he once said, Bercovitch taught at the Harvard Extension School.After earning his undergraduate degree in 1961, Bercovitch in 1965 earned a Ph.D. in English at Claremont Graduate School in California. He was already an instructor at Columbia then, starting down the path to explore what made America unique. Fruitfully, he would occasionally swerve off that path.“Bercovitch is the opposite of a provincial Americanist,” wrote UCLA professor Christopher Looby in a 2002 tribute. “The literary culture of the world — ancient to modern — is the rich background against which he sets the discovered singularities of his adoptive country.” A Harvard memorial service will take place at 5 p.m. on April 17 at Memorial Church.
Legacy systems have been supporting critical business functions for many decades across many verticals. They handle billions of online transactions every day and will continue to play a critical role in business. Replacing these legacy systems is a major challenge, which most organizations are not willing to assign any budget or people toward. However, with the help of Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) platforms and web services, it is possible to unlock the operations and processes of these stove-piped applications; extending their capabilities and exposing their services.With the establishment and definition of points of integration for legacy applications, it gets easier to extend new functionality. New functionality is implemented outside the legacy code and handles most of the new business logic, business rules, and complex processing. The remainder of the process steps is then taken over by the legacy application. Establishing well-defined points of integration for the legacy application is critical here. The new services should be integrated with the legacy application at the last possible point of the process flow, where embedded functionality in the legacy application is needed to continue the process or save the data.In addition to using message queues in delivering messages from new business processes to legacy applications, legacy application services and processes can be wrapped into web services and exposed to the new processes.The newly designed services and process flows can be enhanced by the use of Business Rules Management Systems (BRMS), allowing for a centralized management of rule assets; enabling business users to define, manage, and change their domain rules without affecting the application development code.Over time, not only new functionality is implemented in this fashion, but also existing functionality originally implemented within the legacy application can be progressively exported to be part of new services. Some of the advantages of this strategy include:The complexity and CPU-intensive computation are reduced in the legacy applications. CPU cost, software licenses and maintenance fees continue to be more expensive for legacy systems.The new services are developed and tested in parallel and are implemented using the latest open source technology that may not be accessible from the legacy systems.The use of BRMS improves the organization’s agility, reduces maintenance costs and engages business analysts and subject matter experts.The new services support an overall better SOA. Applications are decoupled through the Publish/Subscribe paradigm with message queues and web services. The new services can also reach out in the cloud for other services, and can be shared and governed easily.The use of modern technology will attract and retain millennial talent.In conclusion, organizations have invested heavily over many decades in legacy applications. These applications continue to support business-critical functions. Replacing them is a daunting task, but there is no need to increase the complexity of — and investment in — the old technology.New technology proven for many years to be efficient and cost-effective can serve an enterprise well by progressively migrating functionality from legacy to modern platforms and shrinking these old systems. This progressive strategy is easier to manage, and it paves the way for the enterprise to ready itself to the next step in which new, on-premises, modern services can become good candidates to be migrated to the cloudDell Digital Business Services enables digital transformation for customers by taking a business-first approach through a robust consulting methodology to create digital strategy roadmaps for organizations, enabling new revenue models, exceptional customer engagement, and superior operational excellence. Our services leverage digital technologies including analytics, mobile, social media, cloud and Internet of Things to deliver digital solutions to customers.Visit us for more information.About the co-authorYoussef Serghat is a Solution Architect at Dell Digital Business Services. He has led and contributed to a number of enterprise and cloud integration solutions supporting customers in telecommunication, airline, e-commerce, aerospace and healthcare industries. He started his 20 years IT career when CORBA was the standard and the facto in enterprise integration and today he is using SOA, ESB, and APIs, to solve enterprise and cloud integration unique challenges. This post is co-authored by Youssef Serghat, a Solution Architect at Dell Digital Business ServicesDell Digital Business Services has helped enterprises integrate their systems with the leading enterprise integration Dell Boomi iPaaS platform. The adoption of iPaaS platforms has enabled organizations to support a wide variety of enterprise integration scenarios, including B2B, EDI, web services and industry-specific standards such as HL7. Organizations that have embarked upon digital transformation by embracing and using a combination of cloud services have seen a dramatic improvement in their business agility and an increase in their operational efficiency. However, some of these same organizations have also seen an increase in the operating cost of their legacy systems.Over time, some organizations have integrated their legacy systems with other applications, using a combination of proprietary and open source ESB platforms. But when it comes to legacy systems they have limited the use of these integration tools for protocol adaptation and data transformation. Once the data is transformed, it is then handed to the legacy application where all business logic, business rules, and heavy computing are performed. This strategy has many drawbacks.Historically, legacy applications have been mainly developed with little notion of integrating with external systems, these kinds of applications are called “stove-piped applications,” as they don’t have well-defined points of integration or interfaces in which synchronization of information can be done with other systems. This makes it difficult to integrate into an overall SOA infrastructure. Also, when new functionality is needed for a legacy application, it is implemented within the same application. For example, when a new Trading Partner (TP) needs to be on-boarded, all business logic and business rules specific to this TP are implemented within the same application’s code logic. Some of the drawbacks of this strategy include:An increased complexity of legacy applications with new code base, and additional resources and licenses needed to be purchased to support worst-case scenarios, resulting in excess capacity that often goes unused.A continued use of legacy applications as stove-piped, with no point of integration and no good support for an overall SOA enterprise.An increased complexity and no improvement in time of on-boarding new TPs. The implementation of business rules related to TPs and the incorporation of the new logic is performed in sequence, resulting in a long queue of TPs waiting to be on-boarded.An inability for the application to take advantage of outside services and applications that exist in the enterprise or in the cloud.
Related Shows The Heir Apparent Uncle knows best? The Classic Stage Company’s production of The Heir Apparent celebrates its opening night on April 9. Written by David Ives and directed by John Rando, the play stars Tony nominees David Pittu and Suzanne Bertish and will run through May 4. Suzanne Bertish Young Eraste has it all: good looks, a beautiful fiancée, and a huge inheritance from an ancient uncle. There’s just one little problem: the uncle won’t die and he’s bequeathed his entire fortune to a distant relative. Oh, and did we mention the uncle also intends to marry Eraste’s fiancée? What’s a fine 18th-century fellow to do? What else but enlist the aid of his resourceful servant who could “out-Figaro” Figaro. Star Files Show Closed This production ended its run on May 11, 2014 Pittu and Bertish are joined by Carson Elrod, Claire Karpen, Amelia Pedlow, Dave Quay and Payton Whitehead. View Comments
It is estimated that 25 billion tons of soil are lost every year due to erosion. With it taking 500 years to replace just one inch of top soil, any thing that helps to prevent erosion will benefit future generations.There are several ways to prevent erosion in the home landscape, but the most important thing you can do is cover the soil with vegetation or mulch. Grass works greatA grass lawn is one of the quickest and easiest ways to add vegetation to a large area. Sod or quick growing grass seed is often planted as a temporary measure until other landscape plants, trees and shrubs are established. However, some areas are either too shady or too steep for grass to grow well. In spots that receive less than four hours of sunlight per day, trying to grow grass is a waste of time. Grass can grow on steep slopes, but maintaining it with a lawnmower may become difficult or impractical.Ground covers hold soil in placeIn these challenging situations, consider establishing alternative ground cover plants, trees or shrubs that are best adapted to the site. The roots of these plants will help hold the soil in place and minimize erosion. There are many ground covers that can be planted to cover larger areas fairly quickly while not breaking your landscape budget. Some favorites include junipers, Japanese spurge, Asiatic jasmine, autumn fern, bugleweed, cast-iron plant, Carolina jessamine, creeping raspberry, daylilies, Japanese plum yew, evergreen candytuft, liriope, mondo grass, rosemary, St. John’s wort and phlox. Do your homework and determine which plants are best suited for sunny versus shady areas. For more information about growing these and other groundcovers in Georgia, see the University of Georgia Cooperative Extension publication about ground covers online at http://t.uga.edu/9s . The best time to install ground cover plants, and all new plants for that matter, is in the fall or winter months. Remember to mulch around these plants to fill in the gaps and cover any exposed soil. Any mulch type is better than no mulch at all. Mulch selection on steep slopes may be limited to either pine straw or finely shredded wood mulches, which tend to stay in place better than other types. Wood chips and pine bark nuggets tend to float away with heavy rains.Build a terraceIn areas that are difficult to access, it may be necessary to install an earthen ridge or terrace, which will catch runoff water, let it soak into the ground and deliver it safely to the bottom of a hillside with minimal erosion. Terraces should be installed on a hillside on the contour at regular intervals to create shorter slopes that will slow down the force of the water. Fairly level areas between the slopes could include lawn grass surrounded by a boarder of landscape plants. A more expensive and permanent approach would be to add retaining walls built of stones, blocks or landscape timbers. The average homeowner should not tackle retaining walls higher than a foot or two. Hire a professional landscape contractor with the proper equipment and expertise for these larger jobs.